Babylon Revisited Fitzgerald Essay

"Babylon Revisited" F. Scott Fitzgerald

The following entry presents criticism of Fitzgerald's short story "Babylon Revisited." See also, F. Scott Fitzgerald Criticism.

"Babylon Revisited" is Fitzgerald's most anthologized short story and is considered by many to be his best. First published in 1931 in the Saturday Evening Post, it reappeared with revisions in the 1935 collection Taps at Reveille. Fitzgerald wrote "Babylon Revisited" during a time of emotional and economic crisis. Like most of his work, the story reflects his own personal experience and his relationship with his wife Zelda; its tone is thoughtful and retrospective, and it is sadder than earlier stories he had written for the Post.

Plot and Major Characters

"Babylon Revisited" is set against the backdrop of expatriate Europe during the 1930s and recounts the story of Charlie Wales, a onetime wealthy playboy of 1920s Paris whose excesses contributed to the death of his wife, Helen, and led to his stay in a sanitarium for alcoholism. During Charlie's recovery, his daughter Honoria was placed under the custodianship of his sister-in-law and her husband—Marion and Lincoln Peters. Since then, Charlie has reestablished himself as a successful businessman in Prague. As the story opens, he has returned to Paris to reclaim his daughter but must first prove to Marion that he has reformed. The Peterses have never been as wealthy as Charlie and Helen were, and Marion is envious and resentful of Charlie's past extravagances. This, coupled with her bitterness at Charlie's part in her sister's death, makes Marion suspicious of Charlie's reformation, and she agrees only reluctantly to return Honoria to him. Her suspicions are apparently confirmed when Lorraine and Duncan, two unrepentant friends from Charlie's past, drunkenly descend upon Charlie while he is at the Peterses' house. Marion is shocked, and changes her mind about relinquishing Honoria. The story ends as Charlie resolves to try later to regain his daughter, believing that "they couldn't make him pay forever," and that "Helen wouldn't have wanted him to be so alone."

Major Themes

Critics have identified several major themes in "Babylon Revisited," some of which are centered upon time and its shaping of individual destiny. Joan Turner, for example, has asserted that one of the story's themes is that "the past cannot be escaped." Similarly, Carlos Baker has remarked that no matter how sincere Charlie is in his attempt at reformation, he is "defeated by a past that he can never shed." Ronald J. Gervais viewed the story as a lament for the past and its pleasures, as well as regret for mistakes made. Numerous critics have focused on guilt in the story: James M. Harrison and Seymour L. Gross, for example, have debated whether Charlie genuinely wants to change his ways or is still attracted to his former life. Finally, while Rose Adrienne Gallo considered guilt and retribution as significant concerns in the story, she also described the pernicious influence of money as an important theme—both in its ability to waste lives, as it has with Charlie, and to foster envy and resentment, as it has in Marion Peters.

Critical Reception

"Babylon Revisited" has been generally well-received since its publication and is now considered a masterpiece. Nevertheless, critics have pointed out inconsistencies in the plot—for example, the apparently illogical route that Charlie takes from the Ritz Bar to the Peterses, and several inaccurate references to the passage of time. For all its inconsistencies, however, most critics agree that this wistful story displays Fitzgerald's writing at its best, with its close attention to imagery and sensitive choice of words.

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Everyone makes mistakes in their lifetimes and whether they are big or small, the mistakes people make and the ways that they atone for those mistakes define who they truly are. In F. Scott Fitzgerald’s short story “Babylon Revisited”, Fitzgerald proves using symbolism, point-of-view, and tone, that no matter how hard one tries to hide them, the mistakes one make in the past stay with them forever, setting the tone for the future. The past is symbolized by several elements within the story, primarily by people, places and things. Early in the story, Charlie brings up an old acquaintance, Claude Fessenden, while talking to Alix the bartender. According to Alix, Claude Fessenden has run up a bill of over thirty thousand francs at the…show more content…

Honoria is a constant reminder of his actions, how he made Paris his own personal playground while abandoning his daughter for more entertaining things, namely alcohol and hijinks.
Certain places seem to hit a nerve in Charlie, provoking memories that he’d rather forget. Prague is an example of this. He has avoided going back to America after his whirlwind around Paris, and has started up business again where his reputation is far less controversial, where “They don’t know about me” (BABYLON). The Ritz bar, where Charlie begins and ends the story is also a reminder of his past. In the days of years before, the bar had been overrun with Americans, newly rich and drunk on French wine; however, when Charlie visits the bar again, it seemed almost a different place, quiet and dignified. “It had gone back to France” (BABYLON). The stark contrast of then and now gives a sobering perspective to a once drunk and lavish hangout. All around the city, Charlie comes across memories of his past he sees a homey, casual restaurant selling a five course dinner for less than five hundred francs, and he suddenly wishes he had stopped to enjoy the city for what it really was. “I spoiled this city for myself. I didn’t realize it, but the days came along one after the other, and then two years were gone, and everything was gone, and I was gone” (BABYLON).
Alcohol symbolizes the two years he gave to

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