Essay On Psychological Testing

Psychological Tests Essay

Psychological Tests

The primary motivation for the development of the major tests used today was the need for practical guidelines for solving social problems. The first useful intelligence test was prepared in 1905 by the French psychologists Alfred Binet and Théodore Simon. The two developed a 30-item scale to ensure that no child could be denied instruction in the Paris school system without formal examination. In 1916 the American psychologist Lewis Terman produced the first Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon scale to provide comparison standards for Americans from age three to adulthood. The test was further revised in 1937 and 1960, and today the Stanford-Binet remains one of the most widely used intelligence tests.
The need to classify soldiers during World War I resulted in the development of two group intelligence tests—Army Alpha and Army Beta. To help detect soldiers who might break down in combat, the American psychologist Robert Woodworth designed the Personal Data Sheet, a forerunner of the modern personality inventory.
During the 1930s controversies over the nature of intelligence led to the development of the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale, which not only provided an index of general mental ability but also revealed patterns of intellectual strengths and weaknesses. The Wechsler tests now extend from the preschool through the adult age range and are at least as prominent as the Stanford-Binet.

As interest in the newly emerging field of psychoanalysis grew in the 1930s, two important projective techniques introduced systematic ways to study unconscious motivation: the Rorschach or inkblot test—developed by the Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach—using a series of inkblots on cards, and a story-telling procedure called the Thematic Apperception Test—developed by the American psychologists Henry A. Murray and C. D. Morgan. Both of these tests are frequently included in contemporary personality assessment.
During World War II the need for improved methods of personnel selection led to the expansion of large-scale programs involving multiple methods of personality assessment. Following the war, training programs in clinical psychology were systematically supported by U.S. government funding, to ensure availability of mental-health services to returning war veterans. As part of these services, psychological testing flourished, reaching an estimated several million Americans each year. Since the late 1960s increased awareness and criticism from both the public and professional sectors have led to greater efforts to establish legal controls and more explicit safeguards against misuse of testing materials.

Intelligence Tests

The first intelligence tests were short-answer exams designed to predict which students might need special attention to succeed in school. Because intelligence tests were used to make important decisions about people's lives, it was almost inevitable...

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Psychological Testing

Testing has become a very important factor in the world today. Everyone at one point in their lives has gone through some form of testing or has done a test. Tests were developed in order to find out information on someone. Thests are being used by many professionals around the world in many fields of study including psychology. In addition there are many type of tests and they are categorized into 5 major categories. First is the mental ability tests, then the achievement tests followed by the personality tests, the interest and attitudes tests and ending with the neuropsychological tests. Taking a test depends a lot on the reliability and validity of the information on the test.
Major Categories The…show more content…

Some of which are clinical , educational, personnel and research. These tests are used by clinical psychologists, school counselors human resource, personnel and by the government for research purposes.
Assumptions and fundamental questions Assumptions are ways in which a professional may assume or believe something to be. Apersons important traits are expressed in order to measure actual behavior. Fundaental questions refer to the reliability and/or validity of a test. The norms, the tests development and practical issues.
Reliability and Validity Reliability is how stable a tests score is . For instance, if a student takes a tests today then days later is tested once again by using the same exact tests and the scores are almost the same then this is reliability because the scores were stable. Reliability is measured because one is trying to see if the tests scores will be similar or in the same range. Validity is what the tests was used for and if infact it really would determine what it said it would determine.
Conclusion
Different tests are given and different measures haven been taken into account in order to figure out many things about a person, their character and/ or traits/ their weaknesses and strengths etc. Being able to know what level of knowledge a certain individual possess is great! The knowledge or type of information and the certain capability they are able to retain information

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